modals

 

Les auxiliaires modaux (Généralités)

À la différence des auxiliaires verbaux (be - have - do), les auxiliaires de modalité permettent d’exprimer un point de vue sur la possibilité, l'éventualité ou la nécessité d'une action. Ils sont appelés aussi modaux. On en distingue six :

Présent
can
may
must
shall
will
ought to
Prétérit
could
might
X
should
would
X
Equivalent
to be able to
X
to have to
X
X
X

 

Caractéristiques

1- Ils sont invariables
- Ils ne prennent pas "s" à la troisième personne du singulier du présent simple.
==> I can play / he can play

- Ils ne prennent aucune autre terminaison : ed - ing

2- Suivis d'un infinitif sans to (sauf ought to)
==> She must go home / she ought to go home.

3- Ne se conjugue qu'au présent et au prétérit. (Sauf must)
Pour les autres temps, on utilise l’équivalent quant il existe. (voir tableau)

Present: He can play / He must come.
Preterit: He could play / He had to come.

4- Ils sont opérateurs (auxiliaires)
- Ils prennent la négation NOT
==> You must not / mustn’t drive.

- Ils suivent ces modèles pour les questions
==> Can I go to the cinema? (Inversion sujet-modal)

- Ils sont utilisés dans les tags.
==> You should learn more, shouldn’t you?

 

Les modaux et leurs fonctions

Chaque modal peut exprimer diverses nuances qui varient en intensité grâce à leurs prétérits.

Can – could ==> pouvoir (capacité – aptitude)
May – might ==> pouvoir (possibilité – permission)
Shall – should ==> futur – conseil – devoir (moral)
Will – would ==> futur– conditionnel – ordre, etc.
Must – had to ==> devoir (obligation)
Ought to ==> devoir (moral)

(Voir chaque modal dans ses particularités)

• Can - can't
• Could - couldn't
• May - might
• Shall - should
• Will - would
• Must - had to
• Ought to
• Need and Dare as semi-modals
• Les modaux par valeur

What are model verbs?

    * Model verbs are also called auxiliary verbs, helping verbs and model auxiliaries.
    * Model verbs are not complete verbs, and they can only be used with a verb.
# The following model verbs are used to with the present tense:

    * can, will, shall, ought to, must, need, may

# The following model verbs are used in the past tense:

    * would, should, could, might

# Model verbs are used to answer questions in the short form

    * yes, I do.
    * yes, we can.
    * No, I don't.

When are model verbs are:

   1. Prediction - Will and Shall
          * Will and shall can be used to state predict that an event or an action will take place or will occur The model verbs can used to make a prediction about an event or action about the future.
                o I think we will be able to go and see the move tonight.
                o My mother thinks we will not get home be it starts to rain.
   2. Requests - Offers - Suggestions - Can - Could - May - Shall
          * To make requests, offers or suggestions can be stated with the model verbs
   3. Permission - Can - Could - May - Might
          * Can, could, may and might are model verbs that can be used to give permission or deny permission to do something or to someone.
                o Can I help you cook dinner?
                o You may not watch T. V. after dinner.
   4. Certainty - Possibility - Can - Might - may- Could - Shall
          * Can, might and could are model verbs that can be used to state certainty and possibility.
                o Do you think it might rain tomorrow night?
                o I might be home before midnight.
                o You can come over tonight if you would like to.
   5. Ability - Inability - Can - Could - Able to
          * My father hopes that we will be able to go to the moves.
          * I can not go to Europe with you.


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MR HAMZAOUI
 
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