have

HAVE (avoir)

Have peut être employé comme verbe et opérateur.  

- En tant qu’auxiliaire, il est surtout utilisé pour former les Perfects (les temps composés, associés au participe passé). To have se conjugue alors sans l’auxiliaire DO

Present perfect: They have bought a new car.
Past perfect: They had bought a new car.
Future perfect: They will have bought a new car.
Past conditional: They would have bought a new car.

- En tant que verbe "avoir", il fait appel à l’opérateur DO (does / did) pour les questions et les négations au Présent et au Prétérit simples, comme tous les autres verbes sauf BE.

I have lunch at 7 – I don’t have lunch at 7 – Do you have lunch at 7?

 

FORMES

Affirmative

Négative

Interrogative

Present

 
Verbe

 

 

 Auxiliaire (ici avec "have got" - mais tout aussi valable pour les temps "Perfects")
 

I – you - we - they have

He – she - it
has

 

I – you - we – they do not have (don’t have)

   He – she – it 
  does not have

   (doesn’t have)

Do I – you – we – they have?

Does he – she - it have?

I, you, we, they have got

He, she, it

has got

I, you, we, they have not got (haven’t got)

He, she, it has not got
(hasn’t got)

Have I, you, we, they got?

Has he, she, it got?

 

Preterit

        Had

     Didn’t have 

Did I have?

 

* les formes contractées sont entre parenthèses

Has got n’existe pas au prétérit. On ne dit donc pas I had got mais I had.

Le prétérit had est surtout employé pour les temps composés, exprimant en général un contexte passé. 

- We had played - We hadn't played - Had we played ?

EMPLOI :  
(Voir la leçon have – have got)



Have ou have got

 
Have got
a la même signification que "have" et ne s’emploie qu’au temps présent.
Have got n’est PAS le Present Perfect de get. Il est construit comme un present perfect. Mais il est en fait un Simple Present.
"Got" ne change donc pas le sens du verbe (I have = I have got = J'ai).

Pour les phrases interrogatives et négatives, on emploie:

- l’auxiliaire DO pour have
- l’auxiliaire HAVE pour have got.

Informal: How many subsidiaries has your company got?
Formal: How many subsidiaries does your company have?
- It has (got) two.

Dans le langage familier, "Have got" peut remplacer "(do) have" au simple présent pour exprimer :

1) La possession (l'appartenance)

- Have you got a car?
= Do you have a car?
- I haven't got a car; I've only got a bicycle. = I don't have a car; I only have a bicycle.

2) Les attributs

- She's got blue eyes. = She has blue eyes.
- She hasn't got blue eyes. = She doesn't have blue eyes.
- Has she got blue eyes? = Does she have blue eyes?

3) L’obligation immediate

- I've got to finish my homework. = I have to finish my homework.
- I’ve got to write a letter.
= I have to write a letter.

4) Quand "have" et "have got" sont interchangeables
Mais on aura tendance à utiliser 'have got' quand on fait (ou pourrait faire) face à la chose ou l'attribut possédé, ou l'obligation qu'il faut satisfaire.

- You've got ketchup on your chin.
- Please, you've just got to help me; it's urgent!
- Have you got the TV working yet?

5) Quand on veut parler d'habitudes et de situations répétées. 

Etats temporaires ==> have got
- I haven't got any milk today. (Je n'ai pas de lait aujourd'hui.)
- She's got toothache at the moment.

Etats permanents ==> have
- I don't often have milk in the house. (Je n'ai pas souvent de lait à la maison.)
- She often has toothache.

Cas particuliers où "have got" est interdit

1) A l'impératif

- Have got the TV working by tonight, please.
- Have got your homework done.

2) A l'infinitif

- Have you got compassion? It is admirable to have got compassion for one's fellow man.
- She has got a beautiful car.
I would like to have got one like hers.

3) Où le verbe peut prendre l'aspect progressif quand 'have' a le sens de prendre, passer, faire, etc.

- I'm having breakfast now. I usually have got breakfast before 8 a.m.
-
I'm having an unusually good day today. I rarely have got days as good as these.
- I had a wonderful dream last night! Usually, I have got nightmares!

4) Aux formes composées

- I’ve got a car (present); I’ve had got it for three years (present perfect).

5) Aux structures causatives

- I have got my kids take turns taking out the garbage.
- I'm having my hair cut today. I have got my hair cut at least once every three months.

6) Aux autres temps

"Have got" ne s’emploie JAMAIS aux temps passés et futurs.
Les questions et les phrases négatives se construisent avec "do" (pour les temps passés) et "will" (pour les futurs).

- She had got flu.
- Did Shakespeare have got any children?
- They didn’t have got to wait long.
- We will have got to be on time.

REMARQUES :

  • Dans le style soutenu "got" ne s'emploie pas et "have" se conjugue alors comme un verbe ordinaire avec ou sans "do" aux formes interrogatives ou négatives.

- Excuse me, do you have a light? (Pardon, avez vous du feu?) (Soutenu)
- Have you got a light?
(Avez vous du feu ?) (Familier)

  • Dans un langage familier, on dit parfois : I got a cat.

Mais ce n'est pas du bon anglais. On peut omettre le "got" mais pas le 'have'.
A moins qu'on ne veuille employer le prétérit de "get": Yesterday, I got a cat.

 

 

MR HAMZAOUI
 
Advertisement
 
Mecheria 45100
 
General Revision for pupils
gherissih@yahoo.com
 
GRAMMAR
Lexis and rules

ENGLISH SOUNDS
THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
 
VOCABULARY
 

=> Do you also want a homepage for free? Then click here! <=