Tenses

 Present Simple Tense
(example :  to play)

Affirmative

       Negative

Interrogative

 

Long Form

Contracted Form

 
    I play     I do not play    I don't play     Do I play?
    You play     You do not play    You don't play     Do you play?
    He/she/it plays     He/she/it does not play    He/she/it doesn't play     Does he/she/it play?
    We play     We do not play    We don't play     Do we play?
    You play     You do not play    You don't play     Do you play?
    They play     They do not play    They don't play     Do they play?
       

 

     The Present Simple is used :

      To talk about regular activities, routine, habits:                                                
          
-  John plays tennis once a week.
           -  We start work at 9 a.m. every day.
           -  Mary eats fish on Fridays.

      To talk about tastes:
           
-  Peter likes Chinese food.
            -  Julie doesn't like fish.
            -  Their children love chocolate.

       To talk about facts:
          
-  The sun rises in the east.
           -  In Europe, the weather is cold in winter.
           -  Authors write books.


 Present Continuous Tense  
(example :  to play)

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

 

Long Form

Contracted Form

 
    I am playing      I am not playing     I'm not playing     Am I playing?
    You are playing     You are not playing     You're not playing     Are you playing?
    He/she/it is playing     He/she/it is not playing     He/she/it's not playing     Is he/she/it playing?
    We are playing     We are not playing     We aren't playing     Are we playing?
    You are playing     You are not playing     You're not playing     Are you playing?
    They are playing     They are not playing     They aren't playing     Are they playing?
 

                                                          

                             The Present Continuous is used :

                            
To talk about continuous activities :
                                  1)  at the time of speaking :   
                                      
- I am reading this page now.
                                  2)  around now,
in a more general sense :        
                                       
- I am learning English this year

                            
To talk about planned future arrangements :
                                      - Next month I am spending my holidays in Australia.   
                                        I have already booked my flight.

                                       - Our neighbours are coming to dinner tomorrow.  
                                         They have accepted our invitation.

                            

Past Simple Tense  
(example :  to play)

                                                ♦  The Past Simple tense of regular verbs is formed by adding -ed to the infinitive :
                                                    (example:  Infinitive : to play         Past Simple :  I played.)

                                                  The auxiliary did is used to form the negative and interrogative forms.  

                                                 For irregular verbs, please see the irregular verbs table.  
 

Affirmative

       Negative

Interrogative

 

Long Form

Contracted Form

 
    I played     I did not play     I didn't play     Did I play?
    You played     You did not play     You didn't play     Did you play?
    He/she/it played     He/she/it did not play     He/she/it didn't play     Did he/she/it play?
    We played     We did not play     We didn't play     Did we play?
    You played     You did not play     You didn't play     Did you play?
    They played     They did not play     They didn't play     Did they play?
                                          
                                        The Past Simple is used to talk about finished actions in a finished period of time.

                                        example
 
◊  Yesterday evening, I played tennis with a friend.
                                  
                          In 2005, I started taking tennis lessons.
                                                           ◊  When I was at school, I hated history.
                                                           ◊  Five minutes ago, I finished the report for my boss.
                                                           ◊  Last week I attended a meeting in Tokyo. 
 
Past Continuous Tense  
(example :  to play)

Affirmative

       Negative

Interrogative

 

Long Form

Contracted Form

 
    I was playing   I was not playing   I wasn't playing   Was I playing?
    You were playing   You were not playing   You weren't playing   Were you playing?
    He/she/it was playing   He/she/it was not playing   He/she/it wasn't playing   Was he/she/it playing?
    We were playing   We were not playing   We weren't playing   Were we playing?
    You were playing   You were not playing   You weren't playing   Were you playing?
    They were playing   They were not playing   They weren't playing   Were they playing?

                                       ◊ The Past Continuous tense is used to talk about a continuous action which took place at 
                                          a specific time in the past. 

                                          ● Yesterday evening, at 9 o'clock, I was watching television.

                                       ◊ It is also used, in sentences with when or while, to refer to an action which was taking place
                                          when a shorter, brief action took place. 
   
                                          ● Yesterday evening, while I was watching television, the phone rang.
                                          ● When my husband arrived home yesterday evening, I was cooking dinner.

         

Present Perfect Tense
(example :  to do)

Present  Perfect  Simple

Affirmative

       Negative

Interrogative

 

Long Form

Contracted Form

 
    I have done     I have not done     I haven't done     Have I done?
    You have done     You have not done     You haven't done     Have you done?
    He/she/is has done     He/she/it has not done     He/she/it hasn't done     Has he/she/it done?
    We have done     We have not done     We haven't done     Have we done?
    You have done     You have not done     You haven't done     Have you done?
    They have done     They have not done     They haven't done     Have they done?
 

Present  Perfect  Continuous

Affirmative

       Negative

Interrogative

 

Long Form

Contracted Form

 
    I have been doing    I have not been doing     I haven't been doing     Have you been doing?
    You have been doing    You have not been doing     You haven't been doing     Have you been doing?
    He/she/it has been doing    He has not been doing     He hasn't been doing     Has he been doing?
    We have been doing    We have not been doing     We haven't been doing     Have we been doing?
    You have been doing    You have not been doing     You haven't been doing     Have you been doing?
    They have been doing    They have not been doing     They haven't been doing     Have they been doing?

             
                                 The Present Perfect Continuous is used to refer to an action started in the past which continues today.
                                  ex : I have been learning English since September.
                                        (I started in September and I continue to take lessons today.) 
                                                 
                                 The Present Perfect Simple is used to refer to the finished part of a continuous action.
                                 ex : So far in my English course I have learnt new vocabulary.
                                        I have revised some grammar rules.
                                        (My English course is not finished, but I have finished some of the lessons)

                                 The Present Perfect is used to refer to actions which take place in an unfinished time period up to now.

                                 
Example :       Today, it is now 2 p.m.  
                                                        At 9 o'clock this morning you started revising your English.

                                                       Today is not finished
, so you can say "I have been revising my English since 9 o'clock."
                                                       (You are still revising, so the continuous form is used.)

                                                       You have done part of the revision work, which is not finished, so at 2 p.m. you can say: 
                                                        "So far today, I have revised tenses and irregular verbs."
                                                       (You do not mention any specific time; you refer to today which is not finished.)

                                                       N.B. If you refer now (2 pm) to the morning, for example, which is finished, you must use 
                                                               the Past Simple.
                                                               ex : This morning I revised tenses and irregular verbs.

 

  

PRESENT PERFECT

          The Present Perfect is used to link the present and the past.

          The Present Perfect is used :

          1.  To talk about an action which started in the past and continues today.
               For and since are used to express duration.
               ◊ I have lived here for 10 years.   I have lived here since 1998.
                 (I arrived here 10 years ago and I am still here.)

          2.  To refer to past events in an unfinished period of time :
               ◊ I have written two letters today.
                 (Two letters are written but today is not finished.)

          3.  To talk about recent events that have just happened or been announced :
               ◊ There has been a plane crash near the coast.
                  (We know the event took place but we don't know when.)

          4.  To talk about a past action with a result in the present :
               ◊ I've broken my arm.  I can't drive. (= because my arm is broken now)

          5.  To talk and ask about experiences or accomplishments
               up to the time of speaking
, but at no specific time.
               " I'm a writer.  I've written 9 books." 
               " Have you ever written a biography?"   "No never."


 PAST SIMPLE

          The Past Simple is used to talk about past events which happened
          in a finished period of time.
   
            
The Past Simple is used :

          1.  When the period of time is finished :
                ◊ I wrote two letters yesterday.  (Yesterday is finished.)

          2.  When the time is mentioned,  either a precise time in the past,
               or a time expression which clearly situates the event in the past:
    
               ◊ I lived in the country
            ...    until the age of 6
                                                        ...    when I was young
                                                        ...    from 1985 to 1992
                                                        ...    before we moved to London
                                                        ...    a long time ago
 

   NB : As a general rule, if you can answer the question "when?", use the Past Simple
 
   

Past Perfect Tense  
(example :  to play)

Past  Perfect  Simple

Affirmative

       Negative

Interrogative

 

Long Form

Contracted Form

 
    I had played     I had not played     I hadn't played    Had I played?
    You had played     You had not played     You hadn't played    Had you played?
    He/she/it had played     He had not played     He hadn't played    Had he played?
    We had played     We had not played     We hadn't played    Had we played?
    You had played     You had not played     You hadn't played    Had you played?
    They had played     They had not played     They hadn't played    Had they played?


Past  Perfect  Continuous

Affirmative

       Negative

Interrogative

 

Long Form

Contracted Form

 
    I had been playing    I had not been playing     I hadn't been playing    Had I been playing?
    You had been playing    You had not been playing     You hadn't playing    Had you been playing?
    He had been playing    He had not been playing     He hadn't been playing    Had he been playing?
    We had been playing    We had not been playing     We hadn't been playing    Had we been playing?
    You had been playing    You had not been playing     You hadn't been playing    Had you been playing?
    They had been playing    They had not been playing     They hadn't been playing    Had they been playing?

                                              ◊  The Past Perfect is used to refer to actions which took place before a specific time in the past.
                                                  ex :  Yesterday, between 4 pm and 6 pm, Paul played a game of tennis with a friend.
                                                          His mother arrived at 6 pm.  When his mother arrived, Paul had finished the game.

                                             ◊   The Past Perfect Continuous (had been playing) is used to refer to a past continuous action.
                                                  ex :  Before his mother arrived, Paul had been playing tennis with a friend.

 

Present and Past Tense Revision

   Present Simple
  
(ex: I play)
  • Routine, habits, repetitive actions :
    - I play tennis every Saturday.
  • Tastes :
    - I like chocolate, I hate doing homework
  • Facts :
    The sun rises in the east.
   Present Continuous
   (ex : I am playing)
  • Continuous action :
    - at the time of speaking :  ex : I am reading this explanation now
    - around now :                  ex : I am learning English this year.
  • Planned future arrangement :
    - I am visiting Rome next Monday.
   Past Simple
   (ex : I played)
  • A finished action at a specific finished time in the past.
    - In 1997 I bought a new car.
    - When I was young, I rode a bicycle to school.
    - I saw your dog 5 minutes ago.
   Present Perfect


   - Continuous
      (ex : I have been playing)


   - Simple
      (ex : I have played)





  • Continuous or finished actions in unfinished time.

    Continuous :
    -
    An action which started in the past and continues today :
       ex : I have been learning
    English since September.
      
    (The year is not finished; I am still learning).

    Simple :
    -
    The completed or finished part of a continuous action :
      
    ex : So far this year,  we have learned new vocabulary
                                       we have revised some grammar rules
                                       we have watched several films.
     
      (The programme is not finished, but we have done part of it.)

Present Perfect

Past Simple Past Continuous Past Perfect
  
      
Present Perfect


        - Continuous
           (ex : I have been playing)


        - Simple
           (ex : I have played)




 


  • Continuous or finished actions in unfinished time.

    Continuous :
    -
    An action which started in the past and continues today :
       ex : I have been learning
    English since September.
      
    (The year is not finished; I am still learning).

    Simple :
    -
    The completed or finished part of a continuous action :
      
    ex : So far this year,  we have learned new vocabulary
                                       we have revised some grammar rules
                                       we have watched several films.
     
      (The programme is not finished, but we have done part of it.)
        Past Simple
        (ex : I played)

 


  • A finished action at a specific finished time in the past.

    - Last year I bought a new car.
    - When I was young, I lived in the country.
    - I saw your dog 5 minutes ago.
    - Yesterday Paul played a game of tennis.
        Past Continuous
      
(ex: I was playing)

  •  Continuous actions in the past.  

     - Paul was playing tennis when he fell.
     - He fell twice while he was playing tennis.         
 

       . Continuous
        
(ex : I had been playing)

         . Simple
            (ex:  I had played)
 

        Past Perfect
  •  Actions which took place before a specific time in the past.

    - Continuous :
      ex :  Before his mother arrived, Paul had been playing tennis.

    - Simple :   When his mother arrived, Paul had finished the game.a completed action before a past event
    a continuous action before a past event
    
Future Simple

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

 

                Long Form

              Contracted Form

 
    I will go    I will not go     I won't go     Will I go?
    You will go    You will not go     You won't go     Will you go?
    He/she/it will go    He/she/it will not go     He/she/it won't go     Will he/she/it go?
    We will go    We will not go     We won't go     Will we go?
    You will go    You will not go     You won't go     Will you go?
    They will go    They will not go     They won't go     Will they go?

 

Future Continuous

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

 

                Long Form

              Contracted Form

 
    I will be going    I will not be going     I won't be going     Will I be going?
    You will be going    You will not be going     You won't be going     Will you be going?
    He will be going    He will not be going     He won't be going     Will he be going?
    We will be going    We will not be going     We won't be going     Will we be going?
    You will be going    You will not be going     You won't be going     Will you be going?
    They will be going    They will not be going     They won't be going     Will they be going?

                                            ◊ The Future Simple (I will go) is used :
                                             * for predictions : what you think will happen or what is certain to happen :
                                               You are going on a long flight.  You can say: "I will be tired after my long journey".

                                             * for spontaneous decisions or offers (a decision made at the time of speaking):
                                               With a group of friends, the phone rings.  You say: "I'll answer it!"

                                           ◊  The Future Continuous (I will be going) is used to refer to a future continuous action.
                                             * You are going on a long flight.  You can say, for example:
                                                In two hours' time, I will be having lunch on the plane/ I will be flying over London/
                                                I will be reading a newspaper/ I will be sleeping/ I will be watching a film, etc.

Conditional Tense 
  (example : to call)

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

 

                Long Form

              Contracted Form

 
   I would call     I would not call       I wouldn't call        Would I call?
   You would call     You would not call       You wouldn't call        Would you call?
   He/she/it would call     He would not call       He wouldn't call        Would he call?
   We would call     We would not call       We wouldn't call        Would we call?
   You would call     You would not call       You wouldn't call        Would you call?
   They would call     They would not call       They wouldn't call        Would they call?

                                            1)  The conditional:  would + verb, is used to refer to an imaginary or hypothetical situation,
                                                 with an 'if' clause in the past.

                                                 Ex : ◊  If I saw an accident, I would call an ambulance.
                                                        ◊  I would call an ambulance if I saw an accident.
                                                           It is possible that you will never see an accident, but here you are describing
                                                           your probable reaction in such circumstances.

                                                           Tom is not rich but he likes fast cars.
                                                        ◊  If Tom had more money, he would buy a fast car.

                                             2)  In English, there are different conditional structures :

   Present + Present (what is recommended in this situation)  If you see an accident, call a doctor!
   Present + Future   (possible future situation)  If I see an accident, I will call a doctor.
   Past + Conditional (imaginary situation)  If I saw an accident, I would call a doctor.
   Past Perfect + Conditional Perfect
  
(the accident occurred but I didn't see it)
 If I had seen the accident,
 I would have called a doctor.

 

  gerund  -  infinitive 

One of the difficulties of the English language is that
some verbs are followed by the gerund  (ex : doing)
and others are followed by the infinitive (ex : to do).

Below you will find a table to help you :
 


When do you use the GERUND?
 (ex : doing)
 


When do you use the INFINITIVE
?  ( ex : to do)
 


      ● 
After verbs that express likes/dislikes :      
            
           like, love, enjoy
           dislike, hate
           don't mind, can't stand ..... doing
  • After certain other verbs,  such as :  
            
              admit             imagine
              appreciate     involve
              avoid             keep (on)
              consider        mention
              delay             miss
              deny              postpone
              finish             suggest ........ doing
     
  • After prepositions :  
         
              interested in ...   
              instead of ...
              good at ...
              before ...
              after ................................... doing
     
  • After certain expressions

              it's no use ...
              it's no good ...
              there's no point in .............. doing

 


   ●  After verbs that  refer to a future event :   

            want,  hope,  intend
            would like,    promise .........  to do


   ●  After certain other verbs, such as  :      
         
            afford           help
            agree           learn
            arrange        manage
            choose         offer
            fail               refuse
            happen        seem ..............   to do
 
  • After adjectives :                   

      glad  (ex : glad to know...)
      pleased  (ex : pleased to meet you...)
      disappointed  (ex : disappointed to hear...)

     
  • After "too" & "enough":       

       too difficult
       easy enough  .....................  to do

 

 

                  
  • The verbs : begin/start/continue can be followed by the gerund or the infinitive
     with little or no change in meaning.
  • The verbs : stop/try/remember can also take both, but the meaning changes.
Here are a few guidelines:
 

                         In normal everyday English, inversion is used

                              ► to make questions :       does he?   can you?   
                              ► after so, neither, nor :     so do I,  neither do I,  nor do I.

                         In written English, as well as in a very formal style, inversion is used in the following cases :

                              1.  ◊ After negative adverbial expressions :
                                      Under no circumstances can we accept cheques.
                                      In no way can he be held responsible.
                                      At no time did she say she would come.

                              2.  ◊ After adverbial expressions of place :
                                    ▪
Round the corner came the postman.
                                    On the doorstep was a bunch of flowers.

                              3.  ◊ After seldom, rarely, never, in comparisons :
                                     ▪ Seldom have I seen such a beautiful view.
                                     ▪ Rarely
did he pay anyone a compliment.
                                     ▪ Never had I felt so happy.

                              4.  ◊ After hardly, scarcely, no sooner, when one thing happens after another.
                                     ▪ Hardly had I begun to speak when I was interrupted.
                                     ▪ Scarcely had we started our meal when the phone rang.
                                     ▪ No sooner had I arrived than they all started to argue.

                              5.  ◊ After adverbial expressions beginning with 'only'.
                                     ▪ Only
after the meeting did I realize the importance of the subject.

                              6.  ◊ After exclamations with here and there.
                                      ▪ Here comes the winner!
                                      ▪ There goes all our money!

            
IRREGULAR VERBS  

   Verb 
 


Past Simple

 

Past Participle
 
 

                   be

              was/were                 been
                   beat               beat                 beaten
                   become               became                 become
                   begin               began                 begun
                   bend               bent                 bent
                   bite               bit                 bitten
                   blow               blew                 blown
                   break               broke                 broken
                   bring               brought                 brought
                   build               built                 built
                   buy               bought                 bought
                   catch               caught                 caught
                   choose               chose                 chosen
                   come               came                 come
                   cost               cost                 cost
                   cut               cut                 cut
                   dig               dug                 dug
                   do               did                 done
                   draw               drew                 drawn
                   dream               dreamt                 dreamt
                   drink               drank                 drunk
                   drive               drove                 driven
                   eat               ate                 eaten
                   fall               fell                 fallen
                   feel               felt                 felt
                   fight               fought                 fought
                   find               found                 found
                   fly               flew                 flown
                   forget               forgot                 forgotten
                   forgive               forgave                 forgiven
                   freeze               froze                 frozen
                   get               got                 got
                   give               gave                 given
                   go               went                 gone
                   have               had                 had
                   hear               heard                 heard
                   hit               hit                 hit
                   hold               held                 held
                   hurt               hurt                 hurt
                   keep               kept                 kept
                   kneel               knelt                 knelt
                   know               knew                 known
                   lay               laid                 laid
                   lead               led                 led
                   learn               learnt                 learnt
                   leave               left                 left
                   lend               lent                 lent
                   let               let                 let
                   lie               lay                 lain
                   light               lit                 lit
                   lost               lost                 lost 
                   make               made                 made
                   mean               meant                 meant
                   meet               met                 met
                   pay               paid                 paid
                   put               put                 put
                   read               read                 read
                   ride               rode                 ridden
                   ring               rang                 rung
                   rise               rose                 risen
                   run               ran                 run
                   say               said                 said
                   see               saw                 seen
                   sell               sold                 sold
                   send               sent                 sent
                   set               set                 set
                   shake               shook                 shaken
                   shine               shone                 shone
                   shoot               shot                 shot
                   show               showed                 shown
                   shut               shut                 shut
                   sing               sang                 sung
                   sink               sank                 sunk
                   sit               sat                 sat
                   sleep               slept                 slept
                   speak               spoke                 spoken
                   spell               spelt                 spelt
                   spend               spent                 spent
                   spill               spilled/spilt                 spilled/spilt
                   stand               stood                 stood
                   steal               stole                 stolen
                   stick               stuck                 stuck
                   swim               swam                 swum
                   take               took                 taken
                   teach               taught                 taught
                   tear               tore                 torn
                   tell               told                 told
                   think               thought                 thought
                   throw               threw                 thrown
                   understand               understood                 understood
                  wake               woke                 woken
                  wear               wore                 worn
                  win               won                 won
                  write               wrote                 written
        

 

MR HAMZAOUI
 
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Mecheria 45100
 
General Revision for pupils
gherissih@yahoo.com
 
GRAMMAR
Lexis and rules

ENGLISH SOUNDS
THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
 
VOCABULARY
 

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