REVISE

THE ALPHABETS

ALPHABET

How to spell

EXAMPLE

A

أي

AREA

B

بـــــي

BEE ,BED ,BAD

C

ســــي

CAT ,CUT ,CAN

D

دي

DOG ,DREAM

E

إي

EGG ,EAT ,EYE

F

أف

FATHER,FAT

G

جــــي

GOD,GO,GOLD

H

إتـــش

HAPPY ,HEN

I

أي

IDEA,ICECREAM

J

دجـــي

JUNE,JULY

K

كــــي

KING,

L

أل

LAND,LEND,LENGTH

M

أم

MOTHER,MORNING

N

أن

NOISE,NOZE,NEAR

O

أو

ORANGE,OFFICE

P

بــي

PEN,

Q

كـــيو

QUEEN,QUESTION

R

أر

RED,RIGHT,READ

S

أس

SLIM,SUN,SEA

T

تـــي

TREE,TIME,TEAM

U

يـــو

UNDERSTAND

V

فـــــي

VERY,VOWEL

W

دبــليو

WELL,WAIT,WIN

X

أكس

EXERCISE

Y

واي

YELLOW,YOU

Z

زي

ZOO,

 VOWEL LETTERS:  A, E, I, O, U.


THE COLOURS

 ENGLISH

FRENSH

ARABIC

WHITE

BLANC

أبيض

BLACK

NOIR

أســــود

RED

ROUGE

أحمـــــــر

GREEN

VERT

أخضــــر

BLUE

BLEU

أزرق

BROWN

MARRON

بني

YELLOW

JAUNE

أصـــفر

Eg:

§  The green eagles.

§  The red devils.

§  The white house.


CARDINAL AND ORDINAL NUMBERS

 CARDINALS

ORDINALS

1. One

1st(The first)

2. Two

2nd(The second)

3.Three

3rt(The third)

4.Four

4th(The fourth)

5.Five

5th(The fifth)

6.Six

6th(The sixth)

7.Seven

7th(The seventh)

8.Eight

8th(The eighth)

9.Nine

9th(The ninth)

10.Ten

10th(The tenth)    

11.Eleven

11th(The eleventh)

12.Twelve

12th(The twelfth)

13.Thirteen

13th(The thirteenth)

14.Fourteen

14th(The fourteenth)

15.Fifteen

15th(The fifteenth)

16.Sixteen

16th(The sixteenth)

17.Seventeen

17th(The seventeenth)

18.Eighteen

18th(The eighteenth)

19.Nineteen

19th(The nineteenth)

20.Twenty

20th(The twentieth)

21.Twenty-one

21th(The twenty-first)

22.Twenty-two

22nh(The twenty-second)

44.Forty-four

44td(The forty-fourth)

60.Sixty

60th(The sixtieth)

66.Sixty-six

66th(The sixty-sixth)

70.Seventy

70th(The seventieth)

100.a(one)hundred

100th(the (one)hundredth )

1000a(one)thousand

1000th(the(one)thousandth )

2000Two thousand

2000th(the two thousandth)

 


                                                                                                                           II.    CARDINAL NUMBERS

  • « AND »is used after hundred ;thousand and million

eg :122-One hundred and twenty-two

      2044 –two thousand and forty-four

  • « A »is more usual than « ONE »before hundred ;thousand when these numbers stand alone.

Eg : 100 A hundred. 1000 A thousand but when other numbers are added « ONE » is more usual.

Eg : 104 One hundred and four.

 

ORDINAL NUMBERS

 *Ordinal numbers are used to denote the date of the month as :

Today is the first of januarry.

Yesterday was the thirty-first of december.

 *They are used for fractions

1/3 a third            ½ a half        7/8 seven-eights

*the article « the »normally precedes ordinal numbers

*Mohamed V . Mohamed the fifth.


VERB TO BE

TO  BE

PRESENT

PAST

I  AM

I WAS

YOU ARE

YOU WERE

HE IS

HE WAS

SHE IS

SHE WAS

IT IS

IT WAS

WE ARE

WE WERE

YOU ARE

YOU WERE

THEY ARE

THEY WERE

Eg :

§  He is a teacher.                                                   

§  We are men.

§  You are a student.

§  She was a great actress.

§  I was born in 1966.

VERB TO HAVE

 TO HAVE

PRESENT

PAST

I HAVE

I HAD

YOU HAVE

YOU HAD

HE HAS

HE HAD

SHE HAS

SHE HAD

IT HAS

IT HAD

WE HAVE

WE HAD

YOU HAVE

YOU HAD

THEY HAVE

THEY HAD

Eg :

§  He has a car.

§  We have an english course.


PLURAL OF NOUNS

a) The plural of Nouns is generally formed by adding "S" to the singular.

SINGULAR

PLURAL

SINGULAR

PLURAL

pen

pens

Table

tables

boy

boys

hand

hands

car

cars

 tree

trees

b)Add "ES" to nouns ending in CH -S - SH - and z

SINGULAR

PLURAL

SINGULAR

PLURAL

 church

churches

brush

brushes

 bus

buses

box

boxes

 watch

Watches

 Grass

Grasses

c) Nouns ending in "Y" preceded by a consonant change the "Y" into "IES" ,but if "Y" is preceded by a vowel only "S" is added

SINGULAR

PLURAL

SINGULAR

PLURAL

city

cities

lady

ladies

country

countries

 boy

boys

day

days

 baby

babies

key

keys

Factory

factories

d) Most nouns ending in "O" preceded by a consonant take "ES" in the plural.

SINGULAR

PLURAL

SINGULAR

PLURAL

echo

echoes

piano  *

pianos     *

hero

heroes

 photo  *

 photos

potato

potatoes

 

 

e) ALL nouns ending in "F" OR " FE" drop the  "F" OR " FE"  and add  " VES " to make plural.  

SINGULAR

PLURAL

SINGULAR

PLURAL

half

halves

shelf

shelves

knife

knives

thief

thieves

leaf

leaves

self

selves

life

lives

wife

wives

 

e) Irregular plurals

SINGULAR

PLURAL

SINGULAR

PLURAL

child

children

datum

data

foot

feet

mouse

mice

man

men

tooth

teeth

woman

women

 ox

 oxen

 * Some nouns in english are used only in the singular form and the verb remains in singular.

Eg : ADVICE   -   FURNITURE  - KNOWLEDGE - NEWS

* Some nouns have the same form for both plural and singular

Eg : FISH  -    SERIES    -        SHEEP    -    SPECIES

* The names of many sciences ending in " ICS " are singular the verb remains in the singular form.

Eg : PHYSICS - MATHEMATICS - STATISTICS

* The following nouns are always plural and are followed by verbs in the plural.

Eg : SPECTACLES - CUSTOMS  - THANKS - GOODS

 

 

 


COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE

*There are three degrees of comparison :

 1-Positive  degree

 2- Comparative degree.

 3- Superlative degree.

01)COMPARATIVE OF EQUALITY :           AS……….AS

  ALI is as tall as Mohamed.

  02)COMPARATIVE AND  SUPERLATIVE OF SUPERIORITY :

  a)    Monosyllabic adjectives form their comparative and superlative by addig  ER and EST  toThe positive degree

POSITIVE

            COMPARATIVE   

SUPERLATIVE

Tall

Taller  than   

The Tallest

Old

Older  than   

The Oldest

Young

Younger than           

The Youngest

Cheap

Cheaper than

The Cheapest

  b) Adjectives with more than two syllables form their comparative and superlative by putting MOREand THE MOST in front of adjectives.  

 POSITIVE

         COMPARATIVE

SUPERLATIVE

Difficult

More  Difficult Than

THE most Difficult

Expensive

More  Expensive Than

THE most Expensive

Important

More  Important Than

THE most Important

Beautiful

More  Beautiful Than

THE most Beautiful

 

02)IRREGULAR COMPARISON : 

 

POSITIVE

            COMPARATIVE   

SUPERLATIVE

Good

 Better than  

  The best  

Bad

 Worse than  

  The Worst  

Many / Much

  More than  

  The most  


PRONOUNS

**There are Three kind of Pronouns :

  Subject Pronouns

 Possessive Pronouns

Object Pronouns

  I

 MINE

 ME

 YOU

 YOURS

 YOU

 HE

 HIS

 HIM

 SHE

 Hers

 HER

 IT

 ITS

 IT

 WE

 OURS

 US

 YOU

 YOURS

 YOU

 THEY

 THEIRS

 THEM

** Eg:

A) Subject Pronouns

  I  am a man.

 YOU are a boy.

 HE is a teacher.

 SHE is a nurse.

 IT is a pen.

 WE are men.

 YOU are students.

 THEY are women.

  B)      Possessive Pronouns :

 It is  mine

 It is yours

 it is his

 it is hers

 it is ours

 it is yours

 it is theirs

 

 

 

  **      Possessive   Adjectives :

 MY pen.

 YOUR pen.

 HIS pen.

 HER pen.

 ITS nose.

 OUR pen.

 YOUR pen.

 THEIR pen.

   C)      Object Pronouns :

Tell me about your self.

 I tell you about my self.

Tell him about your self.

Tell her about your self.

Give it water

Tell us about your self.

Tell them  about your self.


THE PRESENT SIMPLE

1- نستعمل « PRESENT SIMPLE »  عند الكلام عن العمل الروتيني و الإعتيادي  : (Repeated actions) وغالبا مايقرن ب :

always,sometimes,everyday,usually,never,on Monday

 

    1-     I have my breakfast at seven o’clock everyday.      

   2-     She always listens to the radio.

UNIVERSAL TRUTHS 2-     نستعمله عندما نتكلم عن حقائق عامة :

Affirmative Sentence

The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.         

Negative Sentence

The sun does not rise in the west and does not set in the east.                         

Interrogative Sentence

 Does the sun rise in the east and does set in the west?

 

3- نستعمله عندما نتكلم عن عادات :  HABIT OR CUSTOM

Affirmative Sentence

He smokes ten cigarettes.

Negative Sentence

He does not smoke ten cigarettes                            

Interrogative Sentence

Does he  smoke  ten cigarettes ?

 

v     إذا كان الفعل ينتهي بالأحرف التالية : « CH,SH,SS,X,O »   فإننا نضيف « ES »   مع الضمائر He,She,It

 Eg :

   Do                                                                  Does

   Finish                                                   finishes

   Miss                                                      Misses

   Mix                                                       Mixes

   Watch                                                   Watches

v     للتحويل إلى النفي « Negative Form »   فإننا نضيف Do not/Does not قبل الفعل الذي يعاد إلى صيغته الأصلية أي « The infinitive »

  Eg:      Affirmative                                       Negative

          They work hard.                     They do not(don’t) work hard.

          Ahmed listens to music.         Ahmed does not (doesn’t) listen to music.  

 

Interrogative forme:

في الاستفهام نستعمل «   doاوdoesفي اول الجملة مع اعادة الفعل الى صيغتةالاصلية « infinitive  

 

 

 Eg: Affirmative                                               Interrogative

-They like banana                                Do they like  banana?

  -Hayet speaks English well.                 Does Hayet speak english well ?                                                                  

  لاحظ حذف حرف « s″”  من « speak

Verb «to  work » in the present simple.

 

 

I

You

He  / She /It

We

You     }

They

 

 

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

 

Work

Work

  Works

 

Work

 

Do not work

Do not work

  Does not work

 

Do not work

Do I work?

Do you work?

 Does{ she/he/it}work?

                

  Do{We/ you/They } work?

        

 Form of present simple :

** Affirmative Sentence :

I / YOU / WE / YOU / THEY   +  VERB IN INFINITIF FORM

HE / SHE / IT   +  VERB IN INFINITIF FORM  + S

** Negative Sentence :

I / YOU / WE / YOU / THEY   + DO NOT  + VERB IN INFINITIF FORM

HE / SHE / IT   + DOES NOT + VERB IN INFINITIF FORM  

** Interrogative Sentence :

 DO + I / YOU / WE / YOU / THEY   +  VERB IN INFINITIF FORM  ?

 DOES   +     HE / SHE / IT       +   VERB IN INFINITIF FORM   ?

WE USE PRESENT SIMPLE :

EVERYDAY

EVERYWEEK

EVERYMONDAY

ON SATURDAYS

ALWAYS

NEVER

OFTEN


THE PRESENT CONTINOUS 

                       FORM : VERB TO BE (PRESENT) + VERB IN INFINITIF+ING

-نستعمل ال " Present continious"للحديث عن فعل يقع في وقت الكلام وغالبا ما يقرن ب :

at the moment,now,  today

 Eg :                                                                                       

  She is enjoying the film now.                                            

 The boys are working hard                          

 At the moment ,mother is preparing couscous.                                                                                   

                                                                           

Dance                                                                                 dancing

prepare                                                                                preparing

get                                                                                      getting

Verb”To walk”in the present continuous

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I   am walking

You are walking

He

She} is walking

It

We are walking

You are walking

They are walking

I am not walking.

You are not walking.

He is not walking.

Is not walking.

It is not walking.

We Are not walking

You Are not walking

They Are not walking                     

Am i walking?

Are you walking ?

He

Is  she   walking ?

It

Are we walking?

Are you walking ?

Are they walking?


PAST SIMPLE

USES OF PAST SIMPLE :

a) YESTERDAY :

Affirmative                                                                             

Yesterday,I went to Algiers.

Yesterday ,I wrote a letter.

Negative

Yesterday,I did not go to Algiers.

Yesterday I did not write a letter

 Interrogative

Yesterday,Did I go to Algiers?

Yesterday Did I write a letter ?

                                                                                                      

                                                                                                                                                          

                                                                                                      

b) Last week/Last month/Last year :

 

Affirmative

Last week ,She met her mother.

Last month ,he spent his holidays in Oran.                    

Negative

Last week ,She did not meet her mother.

Last week ,he did not spend his holidays in Oran.       

Interrogative

Last week,Did she meet her mother?   

Last week,Did he spend his holidays in Oran?   

                                                    

                                                                                                      

c) Five months ago/Six years ago/Ten days ago :

Affirmative Sentence

He visited his uncle ten days ago.                                     

Negative Sentence

 He did not visit his uncle ten days ago.                          

Interrogative Sentence

 Did he  visit his uncle ten days ago ?

d) Form of past simple :

** Affirmative Sentence :

I / YOU / WE / YOU / THEY   +  VERB IN PAST FORM

HE / SHE / IT   +  VERB IN PAST FORM     

** Negative Sentence :

I / YOU / WE / YOU / THEY   + DID NOT  + VERB IN INFINITIF FORM

HE / SHE / IT   + DID NOT + VERB IN INFINITIF FORM.  

** Interrogative Sentence :

 DID + I / YOU / WE / YOU / THEY   +  VERB IN INFINITIF FORM  ?

 DID   +     HE / SHE / IT       +   VERB IN INFINITIF FORM   ?

 

 WE USE PAST SIMPLE :

YESTERDAY.

LAST...../WEEK/MONTH/YEAR

SEVEN weeks ago/ Ten months ago /Five years ago.


THE IRREGULAR VERBS

 

Infinitif

Past

Past participle

Français

Arabe

TO be

was

been

être

يكون

To beat

beat

beaten

battre

يهزم

To become

became

become

devenir

 يصبح

To begin

began

begun

Commencer

يبدأ

To bind

bound

bound

attacher

  يربط

To bet

bet

bet

Parier

يراهن

To bite

bit

bitten

Mordre

يعض

To bleed

bled

bled

Saigner

 

To blow

blew

blown

Souffler

ينفخ

To break

broke

broken

Casser

يكسر

To bring

brought

brought

Amener

  يجلب

To build

built

built

Construire

يبني

To burn

burnt

burnt

Bruler

يشعل

To burst

burst

burst

Éclater

يتفجر 

To buy

bought

bought

Acheter

يشتري

To catch

caught

caught

attraper

 يقبض

To choose

chose

chosen

Choisir

يختار

To come

came

come

Venir

يأتي

To cost

cost

cost

Couter

يكلف 

To cut

cut

cut

couper

يقطع

To deal

dealt

dealt

S’ occuper

  يعتني

To dig

dug

dug

Creuser

يحفر

To do

did

done

Faire

يفعل

To draw

drew

drawn

Dessiner

يرسم

To dream

dreamt

dreamt

rever

يحلم

To drink

drank

drunk

Boire

يشرب

To drive

drove

driven

Conduire

يسوق

To eat

ate

eaten

Manger

يأكل

To fall

fell

fallen

Tomber

يسقط

To feed

fed

fed

(se) nourrir

يطعم 

To feel

felt

felt

(se) sentir

يحس

To fight

fought

fought

Se battre

يقاتل 

To find 

found

found

Trouver

يجد

To fly

flew

flown

Voler

يحلق

To forget

forgot

forgotten

Oublier

ينسى

To forgive

forgave

forgiven

Pardoner

يسامح

To freeze

froze

frozen

Geler

يتجمد 

To get

got

got

Obtenir

يحصل

To give

gave

given

Donner

يعطي

To go

went

gone

Aller

يذهب

To grow

grew

grown

Grandir

  ينمو

To hang

hung

hung

Accrocher

 يعلق

To have

had

had

Avoir

 يملك

To hear

heard

heard

Entendre

يسمع

To hide

hid

hidden

(se) cacher

يخفي

To hit

hit

hit

Frapper

يضرب

To hold

held

held

Tenir

 يمسك

To hurt

hurt

hurt

Faire mal (à

يؤلم

To keep

kept

kept

Garder

يحفظ

To kneel

knelt

knelt

Sagenouiller

 

To know

knew

known

Savoir

يعلم

To lay

laid

laid

Mettre *

يبيض الدجاج

To lead

led

led

Mener *

  ــ

To learn

learnt