ALGERIA 1

Algeria (Formal Arabic الجزائر, al-Jazā’ir IPA[ælʤæˈzæːʔir], Dzayer, [ˈdzæjər]), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a country located in North Africa. It is the largest country of the Mediterranean sea, the second largest on the African continent and the eleventh-largest country in the world in terms of land area. It is bordered by Tunisia in the northeast, Libya in the east, Niger in the southeast, Mali and Mauritania in the southwest, a few kilometers of the Western Sahara in the west, Morocco in the northwest, and the Mediterranean Sea in the north. Its size is almost 2,400,000 km² with an estimated population near to 35,000,000. The capital is Algiers.

Algeria is a member of the Arab League, United Nations, African Union and OPEC. It also contributed towards the creation of the Arab Maghreb Union

People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
الجمهورية الجزائرية الديمقراطية الشعبية   (Arabic)
al Jumhuriyya al Jazaa'iriyya al Demoqratiyya ash Sha'biyya   (transliteration)
Flag of Algeria Emblem of Algeria
Flag Emblem
Motto: بالشعب وللشعب  (Arabic)
"By the people and for the people"
[1][2]
Anthem: Kassaman  (Arabic)
The Pledge
Location of Algeria
 
Capital
(and largest city)
Algiers
36°42′N 3°13′E / 36.7°N 3.217°E / 36.7; 3.217
Official languages Arabic (Spoken variety is Algerian Arabic)
French is de facto co-official
Recognised regional languages Tamazight (National languages)
(The Kabyle variety is co-official in Kabylia)
Demonym Algerian
Government Presidential Republic
 -  President Abdelaziz Bouteflika
 -  Prime Minister Ahmed Ouyahia
Establishment
 -  Hammadid dynasty from 1014 
 -  Ottoman rule from 1516 
 -  French rule from 1830 
 -  Independence from France 5 July 1962 
Area
 -  Total 2,381,741 km2 (11th)
919,595 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) negligible
Population
 -  2008 estimate 33,769,669[3] (35th)
 -  1998 census 29,100,867 
 -  Density 14/km2 (196th)
36/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $224.933 billion[4] (38th)
 -  Per capita $6,538[4] (IMF) (88th)
GDP (nominal) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $134.275 billion[4] (48th)
 -  Per capita $3,903[4] (IMF) (84th)
Gini (1995) 35.3 (medium
HDI (2007) 0.733 (medium) (104th)
Currency Algerian dinar (DZD)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .dz
Calling code 213
People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
الجمهورية الجزائرية الديمقراطية الشعبية   (Arabic)
al Jumhuriyya al Jazaa'iriyya al Demoqratiyya ash Sha'biyya   (transliteration)
Flag of Algeria Emblem of Algeria
Flag Emblem
Motto: بالشعب وللشعب  (Arabic)
"By the people and for the people"
[1][2]
Anthem: Kassaman  (Arabic)
The Pledge
Location of Algeria
 
Capital
(and largest city)
Algiers
36°42′N 3°13′E / 36.7°N 3.217°E / 36.7; 3.217
Official languages Arabic (Spoken variety is Algerian Arabic)
French is de facto co-official
Recognised regional languages Tamazight (National languages)
(The Kabyle variety is co-official in Kabylia)
Demonym Algerian
Government Presidential Republic
 -  President Abdelaziz Bouteflika
 -  Prime Minister Ahmed Ouyahia
Establishment
 -  Hammadid dynasty from 1014 
 -  Ottoman rule from 1516 
 -  French rule from 1830 
 -  Independence from France 5 July 1962 
Area
 -  Total 2,381,741 km2 (11th)
919,595 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) negligible
Population
 -  2008 estimate 33,769,669[3] (35th)
 -  1998 census 29,100,867 
 -  Density 14/km2 (196th)
36/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $224.933 billion[4] (38th)
 -  Per capita $6,538[4] (IMF) (88th)
GDP (nominal) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $134.275 billion[4] (48th)
 -  Per capita $3,903[4] (IMF) (84th)
Gini (1995) 35.3 (medium
HDI (2007) 0.733 (medium) (104th)
Currency Algerian dinar (DZD)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .dz
Calling code 213
People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
الجمهورية الجزائرية الديمقراطية الشعبية   (Arabic)
al Jumhuriyya al Jazaa'iriyya al Demoqratiyya ash Sha'biyya   (transliteration)
Flag of Algeria Emblem of Algeria
Flag Emblem
Motto: بالشعب وللشعب  (Arabic)
"By the people and for the people"
[1][2]
Anthem: Kassaman  (Arabic)
The Pledge
Location of Algeria
 
Capital
(and largest city)
Algiers
36°42′N 3°13′E / 36.7°N 3.217°E / 36.7; 3.217
Official languages Arabic (Spoken variety is Algerian Arabic)
French is de facto co-official
Recognised regional languages Tamazight (National languages)
(The Kabyle variety is co-official in Kabylia)
Demonym Algerian
Government Presidential Republic
 -  President Abdelaziz Bouteflika
 -  Prime Minister Ahmed Ouyahia
Establishment
 -  Hammadid dynasty from 1014 
 -  Ottoman rule from 1516 
 -  French rule from 1830 
 -  Independence from France 5 July 1962 
Area
 -  Total 2,381,741 km2 (11th)
919,595 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) negligible
Population
 -  2008 estimate 33,769,669[3] (35th)
 -  1998 census 29,100,867 
 -  Density 14/km2 (196th)
36/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $224.933 billion[4] (38th)
 -  Per capita $6,538[4] (IMF) (88th)
GDP (nominal) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $134.275 billion[4] (48th)
 -  Per capita $3,903[4] (IMF) (84th)
Gini (1995) 35.3 (medium
HDI (2007) 0.733 (medium) (104th)
Currency Algerian dinar (DZD)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .dz
Calling code 213
Etymology

Al-jazā’ir is itself a truncated form of the city's older name of jazā’ir banī mazghannā, Arabic for "the islands of (the tribe) Ait Mazghanna", used by early medieval geographers such as al-Idrisi and Yaqut al-Hamawi.

 

[edit] History

Main article: History of Algeria

 

[edit] Ancient history

Roman arch of Trajan at Thamugadi (Timgad), Algeria

Algeria has been inhabited by Berbers since at least 10,000 BC, after 1000 BC, the Carthaginians began establishing settlements along the coast. The Berbers seized the opportunity offered by the Punic Wars to become independent of Carthage, and Berber kingdoms began to emerge, most notably Numidia. In 200 BC, however, they were once again taken over, this time by the Roman Republic. When the Western Roman Empire collapsed, Berbers became independent again in many areas, while the Vandals took control over other parts, where they remained until expelled by the generals of the Byzantine Emperor, Justinian I. The Byzantine Empire then retained a precarious grip on the east of the country until the coming of the Arabs in the eighth century.

 

[edit] Middle Ages

The two branches, Sanhadja and Zanata, were also divided into tribes, with each Maghreb region made up of several tribes.[5][6] Several Berber dynasties emerged during the Middle Ages.[7][5]

 

[edit] Arrival of Islam

Great Mosque of Algiers

After the waves of Muslim Arab armies that conquered Algeria from its former Berber rulers and the rule of the Umayyid Arab Dynasty fell, numerous Dynasties emerged thereafter. Amongst those dynasties are the Fatimids of Egypt. Having converted the Kutama of Kabylie to its cause, the Shia Fatimids overthrew the Rustamids, and conquered Egypt, leaving Algeria and Tunisia to their Zirid vassals. When the latter rebelled, the Shia Fatimids sent in the Banu Hilal, a populous Arab tribe, to weaken them. This continued the influx of Arabs into the region since numerous other tribes then migrated with the Banu Hilal such as Banu Sulaym, Banu Muqal, Banu Jashm, Banu Khalt, and others.[8]

 

[edit] Ottoman rule

In the beginning of the 16th century after the completion of the Reconquista, the Spanish Empire attacked the Algerian coastal area and committed many massacres against the civil population “about 4000 in Oran and 4100 in Béjaïa”; they took control of Mers El Kébir 1505 , Oran 1509 ,Béjaïa in 1510 ,Tenes , Mostaganem, Cherchell and Dellys in 1511 ,and finally Algiers in 1512. In 15 January 1510 the king of Algiers Selim et Tûmi was forced into submission to the king of Spain;the Spanish Empire turned the Algerian population to subservents. The king of Algiers Selim et Tumi called for help from the corsairs Barberous brothers Hayreddin Barbarossa and Oruç Reis who helped before Andalousian Muslims and Jews to evade from the Spanish oppression in 1492. In 1516 Oruç Reis liberate Algiers with 1300 Turkish and 16 Galliots and became ruler and Algiers join the ottoman Empire after his death in 1518, his brother Hayreddin Barbarossa succeeded him ,Sultan Selim I sent to him 6000 soldier and 2000 janissary he liberate most Algerian territory taken by Spanish form from annaba to mostaganem and further pushed back Spanish attacks lead by Hugo de Moncade in 1519. In 1541 Charles V the emperor of Holy Roman Empire attacked Algiers with a convoy of 65 warships , 451 ships and 23000 battalion including 2000 riders, but it was a total failure, the Algerian leader Hassan Agha became a national hero. Algiers then became a great military power.

Algeria was made part of the Ottoman Empire by Barbaros Hayreddin Pasa and his brother Aruj in 1517. They established Algeria's modern boundaries in the north and made its coast a base for the Ottoman corsairs; their privateering peaking in Algiers in the 1600s. Piracy on American vessels in the Mediterranean resulted in the First (1801–1805) and Second Barbary Wars (1815) with the United States. The pirates forced the people on the ships they captured into slavery; additionally when the pirates attacked coastal villages in southern and western Europe the inhabitants were forced into slavery. Barbary Pirates — Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1911

The Moorish ambassador of the Barbary States to the Court of Queen Elizabeth I of England.

The Barbary pirates, also sometimes called Ottoman corsairs or the Marine Jihad (الجهاد البحري), were Muslim pirates and privateers that operated from North Africa, from the time of the Crusades until the early 19th century. Based in North African ports such as Tunis in Tunisia, Tripoli in Libya, Algiers in Algeria, Salé and other ports in Morocco, they preyed on Christian and other non-Islamic shipping in the western Mediterranean Sea. Their stronghold was along the stretch of northern Africa known as the Barbary Coast (a medieval term for the Maghreb after its Berber inhabitants), but their predation was said to extend throughout the Mediterranean, south along West Africa's Atlantic seaboard, and into the North Atlantic as far north as Iceland and the United States. They often made raids, called Razzias, on European coastal towns to capture Christian slaves to sell at slave markets in places such as Turkey, Egypt, Iran, Algeria and Morocco.[9][10] According to Robert Davis, from the 16th to 19th century, pirates captured 1 million to 1.25 million Europeans as slaves. These slaves were captured mainly from seaside villages in Italy, Spain and Portugal, and from farther places like France or England, Ireland, the Netherlands, Germany, Poland, Russia, Scandinavia and even Iceland, India, Southeast Asia and North America.

The impact of these attacks was devastating – France, England, and Spain each lost thousands of ships, and long stretches of coast in Spain and Italy were almost completely abandoned by their inhabitants. Pirate raids discouraged settlement along the coast until the 19th century.

Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha.

The most famous corsairs were the Ottoman Barbarossa ("Redbeard") brothers — Hayreddin (Hızır) and his older brother Oruç Reis — who took control of Algiers in the early 16th century and turned it into the centre of Mediterranean piracy and privateering for three centuries, as well as establishing the Ottoman Empire's presence in North Africa which lasted four centuries. Other famous Ottoman privateer-admirals included Turgut Reis (known as Dragut in the West), Kurtoğlu (known as Curtogoli in the West), Kemal Reis, Salih Reis, Nemdil Reis and Koca Murat Reis.

In 1544, Hayreddin captured the island of Ischia, taking 4,000 prisoners, and enslaved some 9,000 inhabitants of Lipari, almost the entire population.[11] In 1551, Turgut Reis enslaved the entire population of the Maltese island Gozo, between 5,000 and 6,000, sending them to Libya. In 1554, pirates sacked Vieste in southern Italy and took an estimated 7,000 slaves.[12] In 1555, Turgut Reis sacked Bastia, Corsica, taking 6000 prisoners. In 1558, Barbary corsairs captured the town of Ciutadella (Minorca), destroyed it, slaughtered the inhabitants and took 3,000 survivors to Istanbul as slaves.[13] In 1563, Turgut Reis landed on the shores of the province of Granada, Spain, and captured coastal settlements in the area, such as Almuñécar, along with 4,000 prisoners. Barbary pirates often attacked the Balearic Islands, and in response many coastal watchtowers and fortified churches were erected. The threat was so severe that the island of Formentera became uninhabited.[14][15]

From 1609 to 1616, England lost 466 merchant ships to Barbary pirates.[16] In the 19th century, Barbary pirates would capture ships and enslave the crew. Latterly American ships were attacked. During this period, the pirates forged affiliations with Caribbean powers, paying a "license tax" in exchange for safe harbor of their vessels.[17] One American slave reported that the Algerians had enslaved 130 American seamen in the Mediterranean and Atlantic from 1785 to 1793.[18]

 

[edit] French colonization

Constantine, Algeria 1840
Main article: French rule in Algeria

On the pretext of a slight to their consul, the French invaded Algiers in 1830.[19] The conquest of Algeria by the French was long and particularly violent, and it resulted in the disappearance of about a third of the Algerian population.[20] France was responsible for the extermination of 1 million Algerians. According to Olivier Le Cour Grandmaison, the French pursued a policy of extermination against the Algerians.

The French conquest of Algeria was slow due to intense resistance from such people as Emir Abdelkader, Ahmed Bey and Fatma N'Soumer. Indeed, the conquest was not technically complete until the early 1900s when the last Tuareg were conquered by General Guilain P. Denoeux.

Oran, Algeria

Meanwhile, however, the French made Algeria an integral part of France, a status that would end only with the collapse of the Fourth Republic in 1958. Tens of thousands of settlers from France, Spain, Italy, and Malta moved in to farm the Algerian coastal plain and occupied significant parts of Algeria's cities. These settlers benefited from the French government's confiscation of communal land, and the application of modern agricultural techniques that increased the amount of arable land.[21] Algeria's social fabric suffered during the occupation: literacy plummeted,[22] while land confiscation uprooted much of the population.

Starting from the end of the nineteenth century, people of European descent in Algeria (or natives like Spanish people in Oran), as well as the native Algerian Jews (typically Sephardic in origin), became full French citizens. After Algeria's 1962 independence, they were called Pieds-Noirs; ("Pieds Noirs" meaning "black feet", referring to the black shoes the Europeans wore on their feet). In contrast, the vast majority of Muslim Algerians (even veterans of the French army) received neither French citizenship nor the right to vote.

 

[edit] Post-independence

In 1954, the National Liberation Front (FLN) launched the Algerian War of Independence which was a guerrilla campaign. By the end of the war, newly elected President Charles de Gaulle, understanding that the age of empire was ending, held a plebiscite, offering Algerians three options. In a famous speech (4 June 1958 in Algiers) de Gaulle proclaimed in front of a vast crowd of Pieds-Noirs "Je vous ai compris" (I understood you). Most Pieds-noirs then believed that de Gaulle meant that Algeria would remain French. The poll resulted in a landslide vote for complete independence from France. Over one million people, 10% of the population, then fled the country for France and in just a few months in mid-1962. These included most of the 1,025,000 Pieds-Noirs, as well as 81,000 Harkis (pro-French Algerians serving in the French Army). In the days preceding the bloody conflict, a group of Algerian Rebels opened fire on a marketplace in Oran killing numerous innocent civilians, mostly women.

Cosmopolitan Algiers

Algeria's first president was the FLN leader Ahmed Ben Bella. He was overthrown by his former ally and defence minister, Houari Boumédienne in 1965. Under Ben Bella the government had already become increasingly socialist and authoritarian, and this trend continued throughout Boumédienne's government. However, Boumédienne relied much more heavily on the army, and reduced the sole legal party to a merely symbolic role. Agriculture was collectivised, and a massive industrialization drive launched. Oil extraction facilities were nationalized. This was especially beneficial to the leadership after the 1973 oil crisis. However, the Algerian economy became increasingly dependent on oil which led to hardship when the price collapsed during the 1980s oil glut.

In foreign policy, while Algeria shares much of its history and cultural heritage with neighbouring Morocco, the two countries have had somewhat hostile relations with each other ever since Algeria's independence. Reasons for this include Morocco's disputed claim to portions of western Algeria (which led to the Sand War in 1963), Algeria's support for the Polisario Front for its right to self-determination, and Algeria's hosting of Sahrawi refugees within its borders in the city of Tindouf.

Within Algeria, dissent was rarely tolerated, and the state's control over the media and the outlawing of political parties other than the FLN was cemented in the repressive constitution of 1976.

Boumédienne died in 1978, but the rule of his successor, Chadli Bendjedid, was little more open. The state took on a strongly bureaucratic character and corruption was widespread.

The modernization drive brought considerable demographic changes to Algeria. Village traditions underwent significant change as urbanization increased. New industries emerged, agricultural employment was substantially reduced. Education was extended nationwide, raising the literacy rate from less than 10% to over 60%. There was a dramatic increase in the fertility rate to 7–8 children per mother.

Therefore by 1980, there was a very youthful population and a housing crisis. The new generation struggled to relate to the cultural obsession with the war years and two conflicting protest movements developed: communists, including Berber identity movements; and Islamic 'intégristes'. Both groups protested against one-party rule but also clashed with each other in universities and on the streets during the 1980s. Mass protests from both camps in Autumn 1988 forced Bendjedid to concede the end of one-party rule. Elections were planned to happen in 1991. In December 1991, the Islamic Salvation Front won the first round of the country's first multi-party elections. The military then intervened and cancelled the second round. It forced then-president Bendjedid to resign and banned all political parties based on religion (including the Islamic Salvation Front). A political conflict ensued, leading Algeria into the violent Algerian Civil War.

Massacres near Algiers, Algeria in the years of 1997 and 98 during the Algerian Civil War

More than 160,000 people were killed between 17 January 1992 and June 2002. Most of the deaths were between militants and government troops, but a great number of civilians were also killed. The question of who was responsible for these deaths was controversial at the time amongst academic observers; many were claimed by the Armed Islamic Group. Though many of these massacres were carried out by Islamic extremists, the Algerian regime also used the army and foreign mercenaries to conduct attacks on men, women and children and then proceeded to blame the attacks upon various Islamic groups within the country.[23]

Algiers

Elections resumed in 1995, and after 1998, the war waned. On 27 April 1999, after a series of short-term leaders representing the military, Abdelaziz Bouteflika, the current president, was elected.[24]

By 2002, the main guerrilla groups had either been destroyed or surrendered, taking advantage of an amnesty program, though sporadic fighting continued in some areas (See Islamic insurgency in Algeria (2002–present)).

The issue of Amazigh language and identity increased in significance, particularly after the extensive Kabyle protests of 2001 and the near-total boycott of local elections in Kabylie.The government responded with concessions including naming of Tamazight (Berber) as a national language and teaching it in schools.

Much of Algeria is now recovering and developing into an emerging economy. The high prices of oil and gas are being used by the new government to improve the country's infrastructure and especially improve industry and agricultural land. Recently, overseas investment in Algeria has increased.[citation needed]

Topographic map of Algeria

 

[edit] Geography

Main article: Geography of Algeria

People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
الجمهورية الجزائرية الديمقراطية الشعبية   (Arabic)
al Jumhuriyya al Jazaa'iriyya al Demoqratiyya ash Sha'biyya   (transliteration)
Flag of Algeria Emblem of Algeria
Flag Emblem
Motto: بالشعب وللشعب  (Arabic)
"By the people and for the people"
[1][2]
Anthem: Kassaman  (Arabic)
The Pledge
Location of Algeria
 
Capital
(and largest city)
Algiers
36°42′N 3°13′E / 36.7°N 3.217°E / 36.7; 3.217
Official languages Arabic (Spoken variety is Algerian Arabic)
French is de facto co-official
Recognised regional languages Tamazight (National languages)
(The Kabyle variety is co-official in Kabylia)
Demonym Algerian
Government Presidential Republic
 -  President Abdelaziz Bouteflika
 -  Prime Minister Ahmed Ouyahia
Establishment
 -  Hammadid dynasty from 1014 
 -  Ottoman rule from 1516 
 -  French rule from 1830 
 -  Independence from France 5 July 1962 
Area
 -  Total 2,381,741 km2 (11th)
919,595 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) negligible
Population
 -  2008 estimate 33,769,669[3] (35th)
 -  1998 census 29,100,867 
 -  Density 14/km2 (196th)
36/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $224.933 billion[4] (38th)
 -  Per capita $6,538[4] (IMF) (88th)
GDP (nominal) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $134.275 billion[4] (48th)
 -  Per capita $3,903[4] (IMF) (84th)
Gini (1995) 35.3 (medium
HDI (2007) 0.733 (medium) (104th)
Currency Algerian dinar (DZD)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .dz
Calling code 213
Tropic of Cancer in the torrid zone.

In this region even in winter, midday desert temperatures can be very hot. After sunset, however, the clear, dry air permits rapid loss of heat, and the nights are cool to chilly. Enormous daily ranges in temperature are recorded.

The highest temperature recorded in Tiguentour is 145.4 °F (60.5 °C) and is probably the highest reliable temperature ever recorded in Algeria under standard conditions.

Rainfall is fairly abundant along the coastal part of the Tell Atlas, ranging from 400 to 670 mm annually, the amount of precipitation increasing from west to east. Precipitation is heaviest in the northern part of eastern Algeria, where it reaches as much as 1000 mm in some years. Farther inland, the rainfall is less plentiful. Prevailing winds that are easterly and north-easterly in summer change to westerly and northerly in winter and carry with them a general increase in precipitation from September through December, a decrease in the late winter and spring months, and a near absence of rainfall during the summer months. Algeria also has ergs, or sand dunes between mountains, which in the summer time when winds are heavy and gusty, temperatures can get up to 110 °F (43 °C).

 

[edit] Politics

Abdelaziz Bouteflika, President of Algeria.
Main article: Politics of Algeria

The head of state is the President of Algeria, who is elected to a five-year term. The president, as of a constitutional amendment passed by the Parliament on November 11th, 2008, is not limited to any term length.[25] Algeria has universal suffrage at 18 years of age.[3] The President is the head of the Council of Ministers and of the High Security Council. He appoints the Prime Minister who is also the head of government. The Prime Minister appoints the Council of Ministers.

The Algerian parliament is bicameral, consisting of a lower chamber, the National People's Assembly (APN), with 380 members; and an upper chamber, the Council Of Nation, with 144 members. The APN is elected every five years.

Under the 1976 constitution (as modified 1979, and amended in 1988, 1989, and 1996) Algeria is a multi-party state. All parties must be approved by the Ministry of the Interior. To date, Algeria has had more than 40 legal political parties. According to the constitution, no political association may be formed if it is "based on differences in religion, language, race, gender or region."

 

[edit] Foreign relations and military

Main articles: Foreign relations of Algeria and Military of Algeria
Djebel Chenoua class corvette El Kirch (353) built by ECRN in Mers-el-Kebir and operated by the Algerian National Navy

The military of Algeria consists of the National Popular Army (ANP), the Algerian National Navy (MRA), and the Algerian Air Force (QJJ), plus the Territorial Air Defense Force.[3] It is the direct successor of the Armée de Libération Nationale (ALN), the armed wing of the nationalist National Liberation Front, which fought French colonial occupation during the Algerian War of Independence (1954–62). The commander-in-chief of the military is the president, who is also Minister of National Defense. Total personnel includes 147,000 active, 150,000 reserve, and 187,000 paramilitary staff (2008 estimate).[26] Service in the military is compulsory for men aged 19–30, for a total of eighteen months (six training and twelve in civil projects).[3] The total military expenditure in 2006 was estimated variously at 2.7% of GDP (3,096 million),[26] or 3.3% of GDP.[3]

Algeria is a leading military power in North Africa and has its force oriented toward its western (Morocco) and eastern (Libya) borders. Its primary military supplier has been the former Soviet Union, which has sold various types of sophisticated equipment under military trade agreements, and the People's Republic of China. Algeria has attempted, in recent years, to diversify its sources of military material. Military forces are supplemented by a 45,000-member gendarmerie or rural police force under the control of the president and 30,000-member Sûreté nationale or Metropolitan police force under the Ministry of the Interior.

In 2007, the Algerian Air Force signed a deal with Russia to purchase 49 MiG-29SMT and 6 MiG-29UBT at an estimated $1.5 Billion. They also agreed to return old airplanes purchased from the Former USSR. Russia is also building 2 636-type diesel submarines for Algeria.[27]

 

[edit] Maghreb Union

Tensions between Algeria and Morocco in relation to the Western Sahara have put great obstacles in the way of tightening the Maghreb Union and the yearned Great Magreb Sultanate, which was nominally established in 1989 but carried little practical weight with its coastal neighbors.[28]

 

[edit] Religion

Main article: Religion in Algeria

Islam is the predominant religion, practiced by approximately 99 percent of the country's population. Christian consists of 1 percent of the population.[29]

More than 99 percent of the population is Sunni Muslim. There is a small community of Ibadi Muslims in Ghardaia. Official data on the number of non-Muslim citizens is not available; however, practitioners reported it to be less than five thousand. The vast majority of Christians and Jews fled the country following independence from France in 1962. Many of those who remained emigrated in the 1990s due to violent acts of terrorism committed by Islamic extremists[citation needed]. According to Christian community leaders, Methodists and members of other Protestant denominations account for the largest numbers of non-Muslims, followed by Roman Catholics and Seventh-day Adventists. There are three thousand members of evangelical churches (mostly in the Kabylie region) and three hundred Catholics. A significant proportion of the country's Christian alien residents are students and illegal immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa seeking to reach Europe; their numbers are difficult to estimate.

For security reasons, due mainly to the civil conflict, Christians concentrated in the large cities of Algiers, Annaba, and Oran in the mid-1990s. During the period covered by this report, evangelical proselytizing led to increases in the size of the Christian community in the eastern Berber region of Kabylie. The number of "house churches," where members meet secretly in the homes of fellow members for fear of exposure or because they cannot finance the construction of a church, reportedly increased in the region. Reporting suggests that citizens themselves, not foreigners, make up the majority of those actively proselytizing in Kabylie.

One missionary group operated in the country on a full-time basis. Other evangelistic groups visited the country but are not established. While most Christians did not proselytize actively, they reported that conversions took place.

There was no active Jewish community, although a very small number of Jews continue to live in Algiers. Since 1994 the size of the Jewish community has diminished to virtual nonexistence due to fears of terrorist violence, and the synagogue in Algiers remained closed.

[30]

Religion in Algeria
religion     percent  
Islam
  
99%
Christianity
  
1%
 

[31]

[edit] Provinces and districts

Main articles: Provinces of Algeria and Districts of Algeria
Further information: Municipalities of Algeria
Map of the provinces of Algeria numbered according to the official order

Algeria is divided into 48 provinces (wilayas), 553 districts (daïras) and 1,541 municipalities (baladiyahs). Each province, district, and municipality is named after its seat, which is mostly also the largest city. According to the Algerian constitution, a province is a territorial collectivity enjoying some economic freedom. The People's Provincial Assembly is the political entity governing a province, which has a "president", who is elected by the members of the assembly. They are in turn elected on universal suffrage every five years. The "Wali" (Prefect or governor) directs each province. This person is chosen by the Algerian President to handle the PPA's decisions.

The administrative divisions have changed several times since independence. When introducing new provinces, the numbers of old provinces are kept, hence the non-alphabetical order. With their official numbers, currently (since 1983) they are:[3]


1 Adrar
2 Chlef
3 Laghouat
4 Oum el-Bouaghi
5 Batna
6 Béjaïa
7 Biskra
8 Béchar
9 Blida
10 Bouira
11 Tamanghasset
12 Tébessa


13 Tlemcen
14 Tiaret
15 Tizi Ouzou
16 Algiers
17 Djelfa
18 Jijel
19 Sétif
20 Saïda
21 Skikda
22 Sidi Bel Abbes
23 Annaba
24 Guelma


25 Constantine
26 Médéa
27 Mostaganem
28 M'Sila
29 Mascara
30 Ouargla
31 Oran
32 El Bayadh
33 Illizi
34 Bordj Bou Arréridj
35 Boumerdès
36 El Tarf


37 Tindouf
38 Tissemsilt
39 El Oued
40 Khenchela
41 Souk Ahras
42 Tipasa
43 Mila
44 Aïn Defla
45 Naama
46 Aïn Témouchent
47 Ghardaïa
48 Relizane

 

[edit] Economy

Main article: Economy of Algeria
Hangng Bridge

The fossil fuels energy sector is the backbone of Algeria's economy, accounting for roughly 60% of budget revenues, 30% of GDP, and over 95% of export earnings. The country ranks fourteenth in petroleum reserves, containing 11.8 billion barrels (1.88×109 m3) of proven oil reserves with estimates suggesting that the actual amount is even more. The U.S. Energy Information Administration reported that in 2005, Algeria had 160 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of proven natural gas reserves, the eighth largest in the world.[32]

Ministry of Finances of Algeria

Algeria’s financial and economic indicators improved during the mid-1990s, in part because of policy reforms supported by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and debt rescheduling from the Paris Club. Algeria’s finances in 2000 and 2001 benefited from an increase in oil prices and the government’s tight fiscal policy, leading to a large increase in the trade surplus, record highs in foreign exchange reserves, and reduction in foreign debt. The government's continued efforts to diversify the economy by attracting foreign and domestic investment outside the energy sector have had little success in reducing high unemployment and improving living standards, however. In 2001, the government signed an Association Treaty with the European Union that will eventually lower tariffs and increase trade. In March 2006, Russia agreed to erase $4.74 billion of Algeria's Soviet-era debt[33] during a visit by then-President of Russia Vladimir Putin to the country, the first by a Russian leader in half a century. In return, president Bouteflika agreed to buy $7.5 billion worth of combat planes, air-defense systems and other arms from Russia, according to the head of Russia's state arms exporter Rosoboronexport.[34][35]

Algeria also decided in 2006 to pay off its full $8bn (£4.3bn) debt to the Paris Club group of rich creditor nations before schedule. This will reduce the Algerian foreign debt to less than $5bn in the end of 2006. The Paris Club said the move reflected Algeria's economic recovery in recent years.

 

[edit] Agriculture

Algeria has always been noted for the fertility of its soil. 25% of Algerians are employed in the agricultural sector.[36]

A considerable amount of cotton was grown at the time of the United States' Civil War, but the industry declined afterwards. In the early years of the twentieth century efforts to extend the cultivation of the plant were renewed. A small amount of cotton is also grown in the southern oases. Large quantities of a vegetable that resembles horsehair, an excellent fibre, are made from the leaves of the dwarf palm. The olive (both for its fruit and oil) and tobacco are cultivated with great success.

More than 7,500,000 acres (30,000 km²) are devoted to the cultivation of cereal grains. The Tell is the grain-growing land. During the time of French rule its productivity was increased substantially by the sinking of artesian wells in districts which only required water to make them fertile. Of the crops raised, wheat, barley and oats are the principal cereals. A great variety of vegetables and fruits, especially citrus products, are exported. Algeria also exports figs, dates, esparto grass, and cork. It is the largest oat market in Africa.

Algeria is known for Bertolli's olive oil spread, although the spread has an Italian background.

 

[edit] Demographics

Tlemcen Zianides Hotel
Demographics of Algeria, Data of FAO, year 2005; number of inhabitants in thousands.
Main article: Demographics of Algeria

The population of Algeria is 33,333,216 (July 2007 est.).[3] About 70% of Algerians live in the northern, coastal area; the minority who inhabit the Sahara are mainly concentrated in oases, although some 1.5 million remain nomadic or partly nomadic. Almost 30% of Algerians are under 15. Algeria has the fourth lowest fertility rate in the Greater Middle East after Cyprus, Tunisia, and Turkey.

97% of the population is classified ethnically as either Arab or Berber and religiously as Sunni Muslim. The few non-Sunni Muslims are mainly Ibadis, representing 1.3%, from the M'Zab valley. (See also Islam in Algeria.) A mostly foreign Roman Catholic community of about 45,000 people exists, along with about 350,000 Protestant Christians, and some 500 Jewish. The Jewish community of Algeria, which once constituted 2% of the total population, has substantially decreased due to emigration, mostly to France and Israel.

Europeans account for less than 1% of the population, inhabiting almost exclusively the largest metropolitan areas. However, during the colonial period there was a large (15.2% in 1962) European population, consisting primarily of French people, in addition to Spaniards in the west of the country, Italians and Maltese in the east, and other Europeans in smaller numbers. Known as pieds-noirs, European colonists were concentrated on the coast and formed a majority of the population of cities like Bône, Oran, Sidi Bel Abbès, and Algiers. Almost all of this population left during or immediately after the country's independence from France.

Housing and medicine continue to be pressing problems in Algeria. Failing infrastructure and the continued influx of people from rural to urban areas has overtaxed both systems. According to the UNDP, Algeria has one of the world's highest per housing unit occupancy rates for housing, and government officials have publicly stated that the country has an immediate shortfall of 1.5 million housing units.[citation needed]

Women make up 70 percent of Algeria’s lawyers and 60 percent of its judges. Women dominate medicine. Increasingly, women are contributing more to household income than men. Sixty percent of university students are women, according to university researchers.[37]

It is estimated that 95,700 refugees and asylum seekers have sought refuge in Algeria. This includes roughly 90,000 from Morocco and 4,100 from former Palestine.[38]

 

[edit] Linguistic & Ethnic groups

The ethnic composition of Algeria is mixed; no official figures can be given, because Algerian law forbids population censuses based on ethnic, religious and linguistic criteria[39]. Although Algerians who do not speak Berber are usually identified or identify themselves as Arabs, most of them are of Berber descent, given that the Arab tribes which spread Arab language in Algeria since the 11th century did not amount to a massive population influx[40].

The Berber people are divided into several groups, Kabyle in the mountainous north-central area, Chaoui in the eastern Atlas Mountains, Mozabites in the M'zab valley, and Tuareg in the far south, while the Arab speaking Algerians make up the rest of the country.

 

[edit] Languages

Main article: Languages of Algeria
Trilingual welcome sign in the Isser Municipality (Boumerdès), written in Arabic, Amazigh (Tifinagh), and French, typical of Berber cities. Most of Algeria uses only Arabic and French signs.

Algerian Arabic is spoken as a native language by 72% percent of the population.[41] and understood or spoken as a second language by much more. However, in the media and on official occasions the spoken language is Standard Arabic.

The Berbers (or Imazighen), speak one of the various dialects of Tamazight; they add up to around 27% of the population. Arabic remains Algeria's only official language, although Tamazight has recently been recognized as a national language alongside it.[42]

The language issue is politically sensitive, particularly for the Berber minority, which has been disadvantaged by state-sanctioned Arabization. Language politics and Arabization have partly been a reaction to the fact that 130 years of French colonization had left both the state bureaucracy and much of the educated upper class completely Francophone, as well as being motivated by the Arab nationalism promoted by successive Algerian governments.

French is still the most widely studied foreign language in the country, and many Algerians speak it fluently, though it is usually not spoken in daily circumstances. Since independence, the government has pursued a policy of linguistic Arabization of education and bureaucracy, with some success, although many university courses continue to be taught in French. Recently, schools have started to incorporate French into the curriculum as early as children start to learn Arabic. French is also used in media and commerce.

 

[edit] Education

Béjaïa University

Education is officially compulsory for children between the ages of 6 and 15. In the year 1997, there was an outstanding amount of teachers and students in primary schools.

In Algeria there are 43 universities, 10 colleges, and 7 institutes for higher learning. The University of Algiers (founded in 1909), which is located in the capital of Algeria, Algiers has about 267,142 students.[43] The Algerian school system is structured into Basic, General Secondary, and Technical Secondary levels:

Basic
Ecole fondamentale (Fundamental School)
Length of program: 16 years
Age range: 6 to 15
Certificate/diploma awarded: Brevet d'Enseignement Moyen B.E.M.
General Secondary
Lycée d'Enseignement général (School of General Teaching), lycées polyvalents (General-Purpose School)
Length of program: 3 years
Age range: 15 to 18
Certificate/diploma awarded: Baccalauréat de l'Enseignement secondaire
(Bachelor's Degree of Secondary School)
Technical Secondary
Lycées d'Enseignement technique (Technical School)
Length of program: 3 years
Certificate/diploma awarded: Baccalauréat technique (Technical Bachelor's Degree)

 

[edit] Culture and Sports

Main article: Culture of Algeria
The Monument of the Martyrs (Maqaam al-Shaheed) in Algiers
The El Jedid Mosque in Algiers

Modern Algerian literature, split between Arabic and French, has been strongly influenced by the country's recent history. Famous novelists of the twentieth century include Mohammed Dib, Albert Camus, and Kateb Yacine, while Assia Djebar is widely translated. Among the important novelists of the 1980s were Rachid Mimouni, later vice-president of Amnesty International, and Tahar Djaout, murdered by an Islamist group in 1993 for his secularist views.[44] In philosophy and the humanities, Jacques Derrida, the father of deconstruction, was born in El Biar in Algiers; Malek Bennabi and Frantz Fanon are noted for their thoughts on decolonization; Augustine of Hippo was born in Tagaste (modern-day Souk Ahras); and Ibn Khaldun, though born in Tunis, wrote the Muqaddima while staying in Algeria. Algerian culture has been strongly influenced by Islam, the main religion. The works of the Sanusi family in pre-colonial times, and of Emir Abdelkader and Sheikh Ben Badis in colonial times, are widely noted. The Latin author Apuleius was born in Madaurus (Mdaourouch), in what later became Algeria.

In painting, Mohammed Khadda[45] and M'Hamed Issiakhem have been notable in recent years.

Samir Nasri

The most popular sports in the country are football, athletics and handball. Since and before One of the biggest events in Algerian sport was the 1982 national footbal team's defeat of West Germany in Gijon, Spain by a goal from Lakhdar Belloumi. But because of conflicts, and the poor conditions in Algeria through the 1990s and continuing in some areas of the country today many athletes have left Algeria for countries they could earn more in, usually France. Retired football great Zinedine Zidane as well as young prodigies Karim Benzema and Samir Nasri are all second generation Algerian immigrants. In athletics, Algeria has produced several world champions including Noureddine Morceli, Hassiba Boulmerka, Jabir-Said Guerni, and Benida Merrah.

See also: List of Algerian writers

 

[edit] Landscapes and monuments of Algeria

 

[edit] Famous people of Algerian origin

People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
الجمهورية الجزائرية الديمقراطية الشعبية   (Arabic)
al Jumhuriyya al Jazaa'iriyya al Demoqratiyya ash Sha'biyya   (transliteration)
Flag of Algeria Emblem of Algeria
Flag Emblem
Motto: بالشعب وللشعب  (Arabic)
"By the people and for the people"
[1][2]
Anthem: Kassaman  (Arabic)
The Pledge
People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
الجمهورية الجزائرية الديمقراطية الشعبية   (Arabic)
al Jumhuriyya al Jazaa'iriyya al Demoqratiyya ash Sha'biyya   (transliteration)
Flag of Algeria Emblem of Algeria
Flag Emblem
Motto: بالشعب وللشعب  (Arabic)
"By the people and for the people"
[1][2]
Anthem: Kassaman  (Arabic)
The Pledge
Location of Algeria
 
Capital
(and largest city)
Algiers
36°42′N 3°13′E / 36.7°N 3.217°E / 36.7; 3.217
Official languages Arabic (Spoken variety is Algerian Arabic)
French is de facto co-official
Recognised regional languages Tamazight (National languages)
(The Kabyle variety is co-official in Kabylia)
Demonym Algerian
Government Presidential Republic
 -  President Abdelaziz Bouteflika
 -  Prime Minister Ahmed Ouyahia
Establishment
 -  Hammadid dynasty from 1014 
 -  Ottoman rule from 1516 
 -  French rule from 1830 
 -  Independence from France 5 July 1962 
Area
 -  Total 2,381,741 km2 (11th)
919,595 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) negligible
Population
 -  2008 estimate 33,769,669[3] (35th)
 -  1998 census 29,100,867 
 -  Density 14/km2 (196th)
36/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $224.933 billion[4] (38th)
 -  Per capita $6,538[4] (IMF) (88th)
GDP (nominal) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $134.275 billion[4] (48th)
 -  Per capita $3,903[4] (IMF) (84th)
Gini (1995) 35.3 (medium
HDI (2007) 0.733 (medium) (104th)
Currency Algerian dinar (DZD)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .dz
Calling code 213

MR HAMZAOUI
 
Advertisement
 
Mecheria 45100
 
General Revision for pupils
gherissih@yahoo.com
 
GRAMMAR
Lexis and rules

ENGLISH SOUNDS
THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
 
VOCABULARY
 

=> Do you also want a homepage for free? Then click here! <=